Now, no one has any idea that once there was no such variety of stationery. If we survey modern schoolchildren, there are hardly any who will answer the question about the original sources of writing and the history of their appearance.
The most distant ancestor of pen and pencil
To the deepest antiquity as writing materials can be attributed primitive heads from the fire. It was they who painted on the rocks. Then came the stylos, or wrote, representing the pointed cores of bone or stone. The other end was rounded to erase what was written. They painted on wax tablets and bark.
The first feathers began to use in the year 600. It was an ordinary feather of a bird, namely a goose. Before using the pen passed through several stages of preparation. First, it was washed, then dried. Next, cut with a knife, very sharp. The tip is cut along. The writing part could quickly get sodden if they wrote a lot. Then the pen began to leave a fuzzy, thick footprint and required repair. From the pen cut off a small tip obliquely. Until the pen was short, they continued to do so.
Unfortunately, from a lot of feathers, only a few copies were suitable for writing. There was a huge lack of such feathers – it is creak. But despite this, the quill pen has become the main tool for writing. And good feathers were presented as a gift.
The first fountain pen in a metal case appeared only in 1803. But the essence did not change, that is, everything was also used as a pen. The metal case served as a case for it. Only rich people could afford such pens.
The next achievement of man was the invention of the metal pen. In the history of this discovery began to be mentioned approximately from the VI century. Copper, bronze, and silver feathers are described. The first steel feather was invented by Johannes Janssen in 1748 .. The mass production of these products for writing fell on the years 1818-1820. These writing items have become very popular. Subsequently, these feathers were made of gold and silver.
The very first description of graphite and pencil from it falls on the year 1565. The story began with the discovery of a black mineral, previously unknown. At first it was taken for coal, but it did not burn. There were other assumptions, but they were all refuted. It turned out that it is graphite. Thin sticks with a pointed end began to be made of it, but they quickly crumbled or broke, and their hands were also very dirty. Then these sticks have guessed to insert into tubes from a reed or a tree. So the first graphite pencil appeared. And in 1719 the first enterprise for the production of such pencils appeared.
Now the pen is a subject without which it is difficult to imagine our life. But few know that this subject is over 60 years old. At first glance, it may seem strange that a pen appeared during World War II. But this event, on the contrary, prompted this, since the military needed to write with something reliable.
The idea was patented back in 1888, but production began only in 1945. By 1950, many poor quality pens appeared on the market. For a while this led to the return of feathers. But by 1960, the situation had changed, progress had won and ball pens ousted pens.
Many thousands of years passed before the appearance of such familiar objects. In the modern world it is even difficult to imagine how you can do without pens and pencils. Writing materials – this is one of the most important inventions of man!